Correlation between Hemoglobin Levels and the Reticulocyte and Basophilic Stippling Counts in the Lead – Exposed Residences of Tambaklorok, Semarang

Budi Santosa

Background: Tambaklorok area is located in the northern part of the densely populated city of Semarang with rapid industrialization. Heavy metal exposure such as lead poses a very high risk to human health. One of such risks is anemia, as characterized by decreased levels of hemogblobin (Hb). Heme synthesis is inhibited, Hb levels decrease, the erythrocytes life span shortens and hematopoiesis activity increases, marked by the number of reticulocytes exceeding normal. Lead exposure is pro-oxidant which is susceptible to old erythrocyte cells to G6PD enzyme deficiency, causing basophilic stippling. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between hemoglobin levels and the of reticulocytes and basophilic stippling counts. Methods: This research is an analytic study with cross-sectional approach. The population is Tambaklorok Semarang residents who have lived in the area for at least 5 years. As many as 104 samples were taken using Lameshow formula with purposive sampling technique. Hb levels were measured using a hematology analyzer. Reticulocyte count was calculated using bryliant creacyl blue staining and basophilic stippling using Giemsa staining. Correlation between hemoglobin levels and reticulocyte as well as basophilic stippling counts was examined using Gamma statistical tests. Results: Average Hb levels less than normal were 41 (39.4%, reticulocyte counts were more than normal 17 (16.35%, and basophilic stippling counts were 15 (14.42%. Gamma statistic test results showed p value of Hb levels with the number of reticulocytes 0,000 (r = -0.66), p value of Hb with basophilic stippling was 0.196 (r = -0.13), and the reticulocytes counts with basophilic stippling was 0.451 (r = -0.07). Conclusion: Tambaklorok anemic population reached 39.4%. There is a correlation between hemoglobin levels and reticulocyte counts. However, there is no association between hemoglobin levels and basophilic stippling and between reticulocytes counts and basophilic stippling.

Volume 12 | Issue 5

Pages: 487-493

DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12I5/20201965